In November 2017, the Global Dialogue on Human Rights and Biodiversity Conservation was initiated to address the conflicts that have often emerged across the globe between conservation agencies and Indigenous peoples with longstanding relationships to their ancestral territories. Three underlying questions have been examined from different angles during the dialogue:
1) why conflicts between Indigenous peoples and nature conservation interests still arise;
2) how to avoid them happening;
3) how active conflicts might be resolved.
The Dialogue process produced a bouquet of observations and suggestions to feed into ongoing processes, such as the development of the Post 2020 Aichi Targets of the CBD, the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues initiative regarding Indigenous Peoples’ Rights and Conservation Standards and Mechanism, and the IUCN World Conservation Congress; all connected to the overarching Sustainable Development Goals and the Agenda 2030.