Many indigenous and local communities are confronted with protected areas on their lands without their consent or without being (effectively) involved in management or decision-making. FPP assists their activities at the local, national and international levels to make sure that conservation initiatives, protected areas in particular, do not harm their rights and livelihoods. In recent years, agreements have been made in several international processes clearly implying that conservation initiatives must respect indigenous peoples’ rights. Well-known examples are the Durban Accord and Durban Action Plan (World Parks Congress 2003); the resolutions and recommendations of the World Conservation Congresses of the IUCN, and the Programme of Work on Protected Areas of the CBD and other CBD COP Decisions. This new attitude towards conservation is sometimes called the ‘new paradigm on conservation’. FPP supports indigenous and local communities to track the implementation of such agreements and guidelines on indigenous rights in conservation, and to establish a dialogue with government and conservation organisations in their countries, to push for national or local level reforms in policy and practice where necessary. FPP has also been active in supporting Indigenous Peoples and Community Conserved Areas (ICCA) .