Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)
The World Bank’s primary support for REDD+ is a scheme called the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). Comprised of both the Readiness Fund and the Carbon Fund, the FCPF works with a number of developing countries to prepare and then implement REDD+ projects. The Readiness Fund helps countries to develop the necessary policies and systems including identifying reference emission levels (levels before REDD so that progress can be measured); designing measuring, reporting and verification systems (to ensure forest degradation and protection is measured accurately); and ensuring environmental and social safeguards are in place. Five pilot countries that have completed the Readiness phase will then receive funding via the Carbon Fund to implement REDD projects. The FCPF has been heavily criticised for failing to comply with its own safeguard mechanisms regarding the participation and consultation with indigenous peoples and forest-dependent communities. Because the FCPF focuses primarily on preparing countries for REDD+, rather than REDD+ projects themselves, traditional safeguards were adapted to address concerns associated with REDD+. In some cases, however, indigenous peoples had little input in identifying how REDD+ might harm their livelihoods and rights. Earlier confusion over which safeguards apply to the FCPF’s different “delivery partners” (World Bank, IADB, ADB, UNDP, FAO, UNEP etc) was partly overcome in 2011 through the FCPF adoption of a “Common Approach” to safeguards, though progress in implementation remains weak in 2013. At the same time, government application of the FCPF’s Strategic Social and Environmental Assessment (SESA) tool is also at an early stage in most countries and the added value of this instrument is yet to be proven.